Biological Sciences



Professors:  Askins, Grossel, Loomis; Associate Professors:  Barnes, Eastman; Senior Lecturers: Fallon, Hardeman, Suriyapperuma, Warren; Associate Professor Bernhard, chair

The Major in Biological Sciences

The interdisciplinary major in biological sciences, offered jointly by the Biology and Botany Departments, consists of courses in biology, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science.  Students may choose the general track or may customize the major by selecting a concentration either in ecology or in cellular and molecular biology.

               The major consists of fifteen courses:  six core courses, two quantitative and physical science courses, one capstone course, one semester of the Biology/Botany Seminar Series, and five electives dependent on the track or concentration.  The Advanced Placement examination in biology may not be counted toward the major.

Core courses

All biological sciences majors must take the following courses:

Biology 105, 106, 207, and 208; Chemistry 103 and 104 (or 107 and 204).

Quantitative and physical science courses

All majors must take two of the following courses:

Mathematics 107, 111, 112, 113, 206, 207, 208, 212; Psychology 201; Computer Science 110, 212; Physics 107, 108, 109, 110; Chemistry 223, 224.

For students concentrating in ecology, one of these courses must be in statistics (Mathematics 107, 206, 207, 208, or Psychology 201).  Students considering graduate school or a career in the health professions are strongly encouraged to take organic chemistry, physics, and calculus or statistics, and so should complete more than the minimum number of required courses.

Capstone course

All majors must take one of the following courses during their senior year:

Biology 493, 494; Botany 493, 494.  Students may, with approval of the appropriate department, select an Individual Study (391, 392) or Honors Study (497-498) in either biology or botany.

Biology/Botany Seminar Series

All majors must take either 293 or 294.

Electives

All majors must take five electives, chosen to satisfy the requirements of one of the following tracks or concentrations.  Electives may not duplicate any courses already selected.

1.  General Track

Students may take any five courses chosen from additional offerings in biology or botany, or in organic chemistry (Chemistry 223, 224) or biochemistry (Chemistry 303).  Science-based Environmental Studies courses may be selected with approval of the major adviser.  At least three of these courses must be at the 200 level or higher, with at least one at the 300 or 400 level; at least two of the courses must include a laboratory component.

Advisers:  R. Askins, P. Barnes, A. Bernhard, D. Eastman, M. Fallon, M. Grossel, K. Hardeman, P. Hine, C. Jones, M. Lizarralde, S. Loomis, P. Owen, P. Siver, S. Suriyapperuma, S.W. Warren.

2.  Concentration in Ecology

Students must take at least one course in ecology and one in biological diversity, with a second course in either of the two areas. Students must also take two additional electives.

Ecology courses:  Biology 305, 307, 312, 320, 413; Botany 315.

Biological diversity courses:  Biology 204, 215, 330; Botany 205, 225, 410.

Additional electives:  Biology 224, 340; Botany 115, 207, 311; or any course listed in the concentration not already selected.  Science-based Environmental Studies courses and other biology or botany courses may be selected with approval of the major adviser.

Advisers:  R. Askins, P. Barnes, A. Bernhard, P. Hine, C. Jones, M. Lizarralde, P. Siver, S.W. Warren.

3.  Concentration in Cellular and Molecular Biology

Students must take two foundational courses and three additional electives.

Foundational courses:  Biology 302, 309, 325; Chemistry 303, 324.

Additional electives:  Biology 202, 312, 322, 330, 340, 409; Botany 305; Chemistry 223, 224; or any foundational course not already selected.  One course from additional offerings in biology or botany may be selected with approval of the major adviser.  Students may not count both Biology 322 and 409 toward this concentration.

Advisers:  P. Barnes, D. Eastman, M. Fallon, M. Grossel, K. Hardeman, S. Loomis, P. Owen, S. Suriyapperuma, S.W. Warren.

The Minor in Biological Sciences

The minor in biological sciences consists of seven courses:  the six core courses plus one elective selected from the 300- or 400-level offerings in biology or botany.  Science-based Environmental Studies courses may be selected with approval of the minor adviser.

Learning Goals in the Biological Sciences Major

One of the major learning goals that the Department of Biology Faculty share is to instill in students the thrill of discovery and the nurturing of curiosity.  Toward these goals we aim to provide students with opportunities to make their own discoveries through independent research conducted at all levels of our curriculum.  From this work we expect our students to become proficient in experimental design, hypothesis development, data analysis and critical reading of primary and secondary literature.  Our overall objective for our students is to have them come to know biology as a way of understanding, rather than a particular body of information.  As we help students to learn current knowledge, we strive for that knowledge to persist beyond the course in which it was acquired.

The Learning Goals of the Faculty of the Biology Department are:

  • Instill in students the excitement of discovery and nurture creativity.
  • Produce and critique logical arguments through generation and testing of hypotheses, analysis of data and evaluation of results.
  • Acquire a fundamental knowledge of biological principles at all levels of biological organization from cells to ecosystems.
  • Develop the ability to find and synthesize current scientific knowledge.
  • Communicate ideas and arguments in both oral and written form.
  • Work effectively as individuals and in groups.
  • Understand the ethical responsibilities of scientists and societal understanding of science.

SKILL BUILDING AND APPLICATIONS

Our department believes that educating students in the Biological Sciences requires a number of skills including the ability to identify and understand pertinent published research, design and perform appropriate methods, critically analyze results, and present information clearly to a community of peers.  We believe it is important that our students are able to apply their knowledge to the world they inhabit as citizens in a global society.

Courses

BIOLOGY  102  HUMAN ANATOMY  A study of the structure and function of human anatomy.  Emphasis on organ system structure using anatomy software.  Interaction of organ systems will be examined.  This course is intended for students interested in nursing, physical therapy, and physician's assistant.  It does not satisfy requirements for the biology major.

               Prerequisite:  Permission of the instructor.  Enrollment limited to 20 students per laboratory section.  S. Loomis

BIOLOGY  103  INTRODUCTION TO EVOLUTION  An introduction to the process and pattern of biological evolution.  Genetic change, evidence for evolution, patterns of diversity, and phylogenetic relationships will be examined.  The course includes lectures, computer-based simulations and group projects, and class discussions.  The nature of science will be an underlying theme.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students, of which 15 spaces are reserved for freshmen.  This course satisfies General Education Area 1.  P. Barnes

BIOLOGY  105  ORGANISMS  The study of plants and animals, with emphasis on angiosperm and vertebrate structure, function, reproduction, and development. Registration is also required in Biology 105L.

               Three hours of lecture and three hours laboratory work.  Enrollment limited to 16 students per laboratory section.  Offered annually.  This course satisfies General Education Area 1.  S. Loomis or R. Spicer

BIOLOGY  105L  ORGANISMS LAB  Registration is also required in Biology 105.

BIOLOGY  106  CELLS  A detailed study of cells as fundamental units of living systems from structural and molecular levels of organization.  Topics include structure and function of membranes and organelles; gene expression and regulation; protein synthesis, targeting and degradation; bioenergetics; signal transduction; cell cycle control, cancer and stem cells; the cytoskeleton, and extracellular matrices.  Laboratory experiments include protein and enzyme assays, electrophoresis, PCR, fertilization and independent research projects.  Registration is also required in Biology 106L.

               Three hours of lecture and three hours laboratory work.  Enrollment limited to 14 students per laboratory section.  Offered annually.  This course satisfies General Education Area 1.  P. Owen or M. Grossel

BIOLOGY  106L  CELLS LAB  Registration is also required in Biology 106.

BIOLOGY  110  ACCELERATED CELL BIOLOGY  This limited enrollment research group supplements Biology 106, offering an accelerated approach.  Selected students will meet with the course instructor for the laboratory section plus an additional 75 minutes to allow the group to pursue an independent research project that will apply class work to global scientific problems.  Two hours of credit.

               Prerequisite:  Placement exam and permission of the instructor.  Enrollment limited to 16 students.  M. Grossel

BIOLOGY  202  HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY  A general course on the physiology of humans including the nervous, muscular, circulatory, respiratory, renal, digestive, and endocrine systems.  Particular emphasis on regulatory mechanisms.  The course will be taught as a "studio" course in which lecture and lab are combined.

               Six hours of combined lecture/laboratory.  Prerequisite:  Biology 106.  Not open to freshmen.  Enrollment limited to 20 students per section.  Offered every semester.  This is a designated Writing course.  S. Loomis or M. Fallon

BIOLOGY  203  BIOINFORMATICS I  This is the same course as Computer Science 203.  Refer to the Computer Science listing for a course description.

BIOLOGY  204  ORNITHOLOGY  An introduction to the study of birds.  The structure and physiology of birds will be discussed as well as their evolution, classification, and behavior.  Identification of species and the ecology of birds will be emphasized on field trips.

               Three lectures; three hours laboratory, with specially scheduled field trips on weekends and before lecture.  Prerequisite:  Biology 105.  Enrollment limited to 13 students.  Offered in 2011-2012 and alternate years.  R. Askins

BIOLOGY  206  COMPUTATIONAL AND SYSTEMS BIOLOGY  An introduction to the use of genomics, systems biology, and computational biology in analyzing and synthesizing biological data.  Topics include DNA and protein sequences, interaction networks, gene expression, and computational techniques for retrieving, analyzing, and visualizing data.  Emphasis on projects involving interdisciplinary teams and medically related problems.  This is the same course as Computer Science 206.

               Prerequisite:  Biology 106 or Computer Science 110.  Enrollment limited to 30 students.  D. Eastman, M. Allen, and R. Peitzsch

BIOLOGY  207  ECOLOGY  The study of the interactions of organisms with one another and with their environment.  Major topics include a survey of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, energy flow, nutrient cycling, succession, population dynamics, life history strategies, biodiversity, interspecific interactions, and the structure of natural communities.  Ecological consequences of human activity are emphasized.  Registration is also required in Biology 207L.

               Three lectures; three hours field and laboratory work.  Laboratory work includes field trips, collection and analysis of field data, and computer simulations.  Prerequisite:  Biology 105 or Botany 115.  Enrollment limited to 14 students per laboratory section.  Offered annually.  R. Askins, A. Bernhard, C. Jones

BIOLOGY  207L  ECOLOGY LAB  Registration is also required in Biology 207.

BIOLOGY  208  GENETICS  A study of the mechanisms of inheritance involving Mendelian and molecular principles and of genetic change during evolution involving population genetic principles.  Laboratory exercises include genetic and chromosomal analyses; gene mapping; study of biochemical, developmental and DNA sequence variation; and experiments in population and quantitative genetics.  Registration is also required in Biology 208L.

               Three lectures and three hours laboratory work.  Prerequisite:  Biology 106 and Chemistry 103 or 107.  Enrollment limited to 14 students per laboratory section.  Offered annually.  P. Barnes or D. Eastman

BIOLOGY  208L  GENETICS LAB  Registration is also required in Biology 208.

BIOLOGY  214  BIOPSYCHOLOGY  This is the same course as Psychology 214.  Refer to the Psychology listing for a course description.

BIOLOGY  215  INVERTEBRATE BIOLOGY  A comprehensive study of the morphology and biology of the invertebrates.  Morphological diversity will be discussed in view of its functional and adaptive significance.  Laboratory work will stress experimental design.  Field trips are included.

               Two lectures; four hours laboratory work.  Prerequisite:  Biology 105.  Enrollment limited to 16 students per laboratory section.  Offered in 2012-2013 and alternate years.  S. Loomis

BIOLOGY  224  ANIMAL BEHAVIOR  Genetic and learned aspects of animal behavior will be examined in an ecological and evolutionary context.  Topics include animal communication, territorial and reproductive behavior, complex social systems, and sensory capabilities.  Laboratory work will consist of field trips and an independent project.

               Three lectures; three hours field and laboratory work, with some specially scheduled field trips on evenings and weekends.  Prerequisite:  Biology 105 or permission of the instructor.  Not open to freshmen.  Enrollment limited to 13 students.  R. Askins

BIOLOGY  293, 294  BIOLOGY/BOTANY SEMINAR SERIES  Lectures and discussions on current research in the life sciences.  Presentations by visiting scientists, Connecticut College faculty, and student researchers.  Preparation of pre-lecture questions through background readings and post-lecture summaries required.  This is the same course as Botany 293, 294.

               One meeting per week throughout the semester.  Two hours of credit, marked as pass/not passed.  These courses may be taken for a maximum of four credits.  Prerequisite:  Junior or senior status and two of the following courses:  Biology 105, 106, 207, 208, or Botany 115. Enrollment limited to 40 students.  Offered every semester.  Biology and Botany Faculty

BIOLOGY  298  GENOMICS, PROTEOMICS, AND BIOINFORMATICS  An introduction to genomics, proteomics, and bioinformatics, with emphasis on examining genome-scale information.   Topics include gene-finder methods, gene homology (or family) identification methods, and other computational techniques for analyzing DNA and RNA sequences.  The course will include a survey of the protein ″nanomachines,″ as well as protein families and protein-protein interactions.
               Prerequisite or parallel:  Biology 208.  Enrollment limited to 20 students.  S. Winters-Hilt

BIOLOGY  302  MOLECULAR DEVELOPMENT  This course focuses on the molecular, cellular, genetic, and evolutionary aspects of developmental processes in microbes, animals, and plants.  Specific topics include embryogenesis, stem cells, gene expression regulation, and cell signaling.  Investigative experiments and independent projects on live animals and plants will be emphasized in the laboratory.

               Two hours lecture; four hours laboratory.  Prerequisite:  Biology 106 and 208.  Enrollment limited to 12 students per laboratory section.  Offered in 2011-2012 and alternate years.  This is a designated Writing course.  D. Eastman

BIOLOGY  303, 304  SPECIAL TOPICS IN BIOLOGY  A study of topics selected from any area of biology.  Topics vary from year to year and may include cell and molecular biology, ecological theory, systems biology, field studies, or new and emerging fields.  Some topics may utilize biological data analysis, research methods, or experimental laboratory components.  May be repeated for credit.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  Staff

BIOLOGY  305  MARINE ECOLOGY  Students will explore the ecology and biota of local marine environments through field work and individual research projects.  The course will focus on biological responses to environmental challenges, and will explore the roles of diversity, trophic structure, and productivity in marine systems.  Critical evaluation of primary literature will be emphasized.

               Two lectures; four hours field or laboratory work.  Prerequisite:  Biology 207.  Enrollment limited to 12 students.  This is a designated Writing course.  A. Bernhard

BIOLOGY  306  MICROBIAL GENETICS  This course focuses on structure, function, expression, and evolution of microbial genes and methods of study through lecture and critical analysis of literature.  Topics include genetic analysis of mutants, operon systems, gene transfer among organisms, molecular strategies including restriction mapping, gene cloning, DNA sequencing, q-PCR, and microarrays.

               Prerequisite:  Biology 106 and 208.  Enrollment limited to 30 students.  S. Suriyapperuma

BIOLOGY  307  FRESHWATER ECOLOGY  An introduction to the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of lacustrine environments.  A comparative approach, integrating field, laboratory, and classroom investigations, to analyze similarities and differences in freshwater ecosystems.  Interaction of environmental factors in controlling the distributions of organism, trophic dynamics, eutrophication, acidification, lake ontogeny, analyses of catchments, and paleolimnological topics.

               Two lectures; four hours field or laboratory work.  Overnight field trip required.  Prerequisite:  Biology 105 and one additional course in Biology or Botany which may be taken concurrently.  Enrollment limited to 12 students.  Offered in 2012-2013 and alternate years.  P. Siver

BIOLOGY  309  MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY  A comprehensive study of the molecular mechanisms of basic cellular functions involved in human health and disease.  Topics include DNA structure, gene expression, stem cells, and cancer.  Registration is also required in Biology 309L.

               Three hours of lecture and one three-hour laboratory.  The laboratory incorporates a semester-long class research project that involves molecular cloning, tissue culture, transfection of mammalian cells, and studies of protein-protein interactions.  Prerequisite:  Biology 208 and Chemistry 223.  Enrollment limited to 12 students per laboratory section.  Offered in 2014-2015 and alternate years.  M. Grossel 

BIOLOGY  309L  MOLECULAR BIOLOGY LAB  Registration is also required in Biology 309.

BIOLOGY  310  CONSERVATION BIOLOGY  A study of the role of biological diversity in the functioning of ecosystems throughout the world, with a focus on threats to ecological stability.  Topics include traditional conservation, landscape ecology and restoration ecology, with an emphasis on economic sustainability and social justice as well as ecological sustainability.  This is the same course as Environmental Studies 310.

               Prerequisite:  Biology 207.  Enrollment limited to 13 students.  R. Askins

BIOLOGY  312  MOLECULAR ECOLOGY  This course will integrate aspects of molecular biology, ecology, and evolution.  Students will explore the use of molecular techniques, including genomics, to address ecological questions through student-designed experiments and critical evaluation of published studies.  Students will also discuss the role of molecular ecology in conservation biology and population genetics.

               Prerequisite:  Biology 207 or 208.  Enrollment limited to 12 students.  Offered in 2011-2012 and alternate years.  A. Bernhard

BIOLOGY  314  BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE  This is the same course as Psychology 314.  Refer to the Psychology listing for a course description.

BIOLOGY  315  DRUG DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT  A study of the process of drug discovery and development, from target identification to drug approval.  Topics include scientific, ethical, and regulatory considerations.  Emphasis on the application of biological disciplines and the major classes of drug targets on the market today.

               Prerequisite:  Biology 106 and 208.  Enrollment limited to 25 students.  S. des Etages

BIOLOGY  320  TROPICAL BIOLOGY  An intensive field course emphasizing community ecology and adaptations of organisms to tropical environments.  Field trips and research projects will be based at research stations in Belize, and will include studies of the following natural communities:  tropical forests, mangrove swamps, sea grass beds, and coral reefs.

               One lecture per week and 12 days of intensive field work in Belize during spring break.  Prerequisite:  Biology 207 and permission of the instructor.  Enrollment limited to 16 students.  Special Fee.  Offered in 2012-2013 and alternate years.  S. Loomis, M. Lizarralde

BIOLOGY  322  PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY  This is the same course as Psychology 322.  Refer to the Psychology listing for a course description.

BIOLOGY  325  CELL ULTRASTRUCTURE  Advanced structural cell biology emphasizing the use of electron optics.  Methods of biological sample preparation, theory and use of transmission and scanning electron microscopes, production of photomicrographs through darkroom and digital imaging techniques.  Concentrated research on integrated original research projects.

               Six hours of combined lecture and laboratory group or tutorial work weekly.  Prerequisite:  Biology 106 and Chemistry 104, or permission of the instructor.  Enrollment limited to 10 students.  This is a designated Writing course.  P. Owen

BIOLOGY  326  SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY  Theory and use of the scanning electron microscope, sample preparation and x-ray microanalysis.  Concentrated research on original research projects.

               Six hours of combined lecture and laboratory group or tutorial work weekly during the second half of the semester; two hours of credit.  Not intended for majors in biological sciences or botany.  Prerequisite:  Chemistry 103 and permission of the instructor.  Enrollment limited to 4 students.  P. Owen

BIOLOGY  330  MICROBIOLOGY  Structure and growth of bacteria and viruses, with emphasis on the role of microorganisms in genetic engineering, in the environment, and as agents of diseases such as AIDS and tuberculosis. Registration is also required in Biology 330L.

               Prerequisite:  Biology 106 and 208; and either Chemistry 103 and 104 or 107 and 204; or permission of the instructor.  Enrollment limited to 12 students per lab section.  Offered annually.   A. Bernhard, S. Suriyapperuma

BIOLOGY  330L  MICROBIOLOGY LAB  Registration is also required in Biology 330.

BIOLOGY  336  NEUROBIOLOGY OF DISEASE  This is the same course as Psychology 336.  Refer to the Psychology listing for a course description.

BIOLOGY  340  EVOLUTION  An exploration of the theory and process of biological evolution.  Topics include adaptation; variation at different levels from DNA to populations; the population genetics of microevolution; and the origin of new species.  Macroevolution will be examined through the fossil record, modern phylogenetic techniques, the origin of novelty, and human evolution.

               Three lectures; three hours of laboratory.  Prerequisite:  Biology 208 and either Biology 207 or permission of the instructor.  Enrollment limited to 16 students per laboratory section.  Offered in 2013-2014 and alternate years.  P. Barnes

BIOLOGY  396  RESEARCH METHODS:  CANCER AND THE CELL CYCLE  Students will work as a team with the professor on a collaborative research project related to Dr. Grossel's cancer research.  The research team will learn to design and conduct experiments and to present the findings in poster and/or seminar format.  The class will engage a specific question with the goal of learning general research skills and specific cell and molecular biology techniques.  The class will meet together for 90 minutes each week with additional time of at least 90 minutes required for research teams to conduct experiments and culture bacteria, yeast or mammalian cells, as required.  Students who complete this class will be well-prepared to conduct an honors thesis.

               Prerequisite:  Biology 106, 208, 309, Chemistry 223, 224, and approval of the course instructor.  Enrollment limited to 6 students.  This is a designated Writing course.  M. Grossel

BIOLOGY  402  ADVANCED CELL BIOLOGY  This is the same course as Botany 402.  Refer to the Botany listing for a course description.

BIOLOGY  409  BEHAVIORAL ENDOCRINOLOGY  This is the same course as Psychology 409.  Refer to the Psychology listing for a course description.

BIOLOGY  413  ESTUARINE ECOLOGY  Community and systems ecology of tidal marsh-estuarine ecosystems with emphasis on auto-ecology of dominant vascular plants, macro-invertebrates and fish.  Historical development of tidal wetlands, ecological connections with near-shore marine ecosystems, and human manipulation and management of marsh-estuarine ecosystems are also considered.

               Two lectures; four hours field or laboratory work.  Overnight field trip required.  Prerequisite:  Biology 105 and at least one additional course in botany, biology taken at the 200 level.  Enrollment limited to 14 students.  Offered in alternate years.  This is a designated Writing course.  Staff

BIOLOGY  414  IMMUNOLOGY  This course begins with a lecture-based overview of the field of immunology and by mid-semester becomes seminar-based with students reading primary journal articles and presenting papers on focused areas of immunology.

               Prerequisite:  Chemistry 223, 224, and Biology 302 or 309.  Open to juniors and seniors, and to sophomores with permission of the instructor.  Enrollment limited to 16 students.  Staff

BIOLOGY  415  BEHAVIOR AND COMMUNICATION OF MARINE MAMMALS  Marine mammal communication, cognition, behavioral ecology, and conservation are the main topics.  The seminar will also discuss diversity and evolution of marine mammals.  Students will present and lead discussions on the methods, results, and conclusions of scientific papers.

                One, three-hour seminar-style class per week.  Prerequisite:  Biology 105, 207 or 224 or permission of the instructor.  Enrollment limited to 16 students.  K.M. Dudzinski

BIOLOGY  429  COMPARATIVE ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY  A comparative study of the physiological adaptations of animals to the environment utilizing current research methods.  Emphasis may be on invertebrates and/or vertebrates.  Laboratory exercises will involve research projects dealing with specific environmental adaptations.

               Two lectures; four hours of laboratory work.  Prerequisite:  Biology 106 and 202.  Open to juniors and seniors.  Enrollment limited to 12 students per laboratory section.  This is a designated Writing course.  S. Loomis

BIOLOGY  442  BEHAVIORAL GENETICS  An examination of the interdisciplinary field that combines behavior and genetics to study the effects that genes, development, environment, and their interactions have on a variety of complex behaviors of humans and other animals.  Topics may include sense perception and response, memory and learning, circadian rhythms, courtship patterns, locomotion, social interactions, and addiction.  Lectures on basic principles and discussion of primary research literature will be used.

               Prerequisite:  Biology 208.  Enrollment limited to 16 students.  P. Barnes

BIOLOGY  493, 494  SEMINAR IN BIOLOGY

               Open to juniors and seniors, and to sophomores with permission of the instructor.  Additional prerequisites may be listed with each topic.  Enrollment limited to 16 students.  This is a designated Writing course.

BIOLOGY  493E, 494E  MOLECULAR BASIS OF CANCER

               Prerequisite:  Biology 208 and 309.

BIOLOGY  493F, 494F  CONSERVATION BIOLOGY AND GENETICS

               Prerequisite:  Biology 207 and 208.

BIOLOGY  493G, 494G  MOLECULAR EVOLUTION  The use of protein and DNA sequences to analyze how evolution occurs at the molecular level. Topics include random genetic drift and natural selection, construction of molecular phylogenies, origin of new gene functions, and evolution of transposable elements. Students will use primary literature for discussions, presentations, and writing projects.

               Open to juniors and seniors.  Prerequisite:  Biology 208 and one Biology or Botany course at the 300 or 400 level.  P. Barnes

BIOLOGY  493H, 494H  STEM CELLS AND CELL SIGNALING

               Prerequisite:  Biology 208.

BIOLOGY  493I, 494I  GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS  This is the same course as Botany 493B, 494B.  Refer to the Botany listing for a course description.

BIOLOGY  493J, 494J  MARINE BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION  This course will cover current issues in marine biodiversity and conservation.  Topics may include trophic cascades, marine sanctuaries, impacts of invasive species, and overfishing.  Students will explore various topics, using current literature to direct in-class discussions and presentations.

               Prerequisite:  Biology 207.  Open to juniors and seniors.  A. Bernhard

BIOLOGY 493L, 494L PATHOPHYSIOLOGY  A study of the physiology of disease using current literature.  Students will lead class discussions and presentations on the mechanisms of disease processes.

Prerequisite:  Course 202.  S. Loomis

BIOLOGY  493N, 494N  LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY  Discussion of recent literature on topics such as metapopulations, habitat fragmentation, and the role of natural disturbances in maintaining biological diversity.  Each student will lead a discussion of recent, peer-reviewed literature on a particular topic.

                One, three-hour seminar-style class per week.  Prerequisite:  Biology 207 or permission of the instructor.  Open to juniors and seniors.  R. Askins

BIOLOGY  291, 292  INDIVIDUAL STUDY  Library research and discussion of current topics beyond the basic curriculum in biological sciences, carried out under the direction of a faculty member.  A research paper is required.  Ten hours of work per week expected.

               Prerequisite:  Arrange with faculty member prior to registration.  A brief description of the proposed project required for departmental approval.  Offered by individual arrangement.

BIOLOGY  391, 392  INDIVIDUAL STUDY  (Independent Research) An independent laboratory or field research project carried out under the direction of a faculty member from the botany or biology departments.  A research report in the style of a scientific publication required.  Ten hours of work per week is expected if taking for 4 credits, and five hours per week if taking for 2 credits.

               Prerequisite:  Arrange with faculty member prior to registration.  A brief description of the proposed project required for department approval.  Offered by individual arrangement.

BIOLOGY  497-498  HONORS STUDY  This is a designated Writing course.

The Major in Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Biology

The Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Biology major, offered jointly by the Biology, Botany, and Chemistry Departments, integrates related courses and areas of study in chemistry and biology.  It recognizes the importance of the interdisciplinary nature of modern biochemistry, cellular and molecular biology, and the role of these disciplines in modern biological, biomedical, and chemical sciences.  See listing under the Chemistry Department.

The Major in Behavioral Neuroscience

The interdisciplinary major in Behavioral Neuroscience (formerly Neuroscience/Psychobiology) is offered jointly by the Psychology and Biology Departments and is intended to fill the needs of students seeking to understand the biological bases of behavior.  It guides the student toward investigation of physiological, genetic, structural, developmental, and evolutionary foundations of human and non-human animal behavior.  See listing under Behavioral Neuroscience.