Environmental Studies



Professors:  Askins, Borrelli, Dawson, Frasure, Loomis, Patton, Thompson, Visgilio, Zimmer; Associate Professors:  Graesch, Jones, Lizarralde, Turner; Adjunct Assistant Professor:  Davis; Senior Lecturers:  Chomiak, Hine; Postdoctoral Fellow:  Colom; Professor Siver, director

The Major in Environmental Studies

Environmental Studies is an interdisciplinary program that combines natural science and social science.  It examines local, regional, national, and international environmental problems in a holistic manner.  There are two tracks to the major, the Natural Science Track and the Social Science Track.  The College is also a member of a consortium of small liberal arts colleges that participates in a semester of study in environmental science, known as the Semester in Environmental Science, at The Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA.

               Except for transfer students and students accepted in the Semester in Environmental Science program, no more than two courses taken off campus can be applied toward the major.  Courses taken off campus need pre-approval by the director.

               Advanced Placement:  Students who score a 4 or 5 on the Advanced Placement Environmental Science test can place out of Environmental Studies 110, but not Environmental Studies 111.  Advanced Placement credit in Environmental Science does not count towards fulfilling Area 1 of the General Education requirements.  See page 154 of this catalog for general information about Advanced Placement credit.

Natural Science Track

This track consists of thirteen courses distributed as follows:

  1. The following five courses:  Environmental Studies 110 or 111; Environmental Studies 115 or 120; Biology 105 or Botany 115; Biology 207; Chemistry 103 or 107 (Chemistry 101 will not fulfill this requirement).
  2. Two courses from the following field/ecological group:  Biology 305, 307, 320, 413; Botany  205, 315; Environmental Studies 314, 315, 316.
  3. One course from the following organismal/analytical group:  Biology 204, 215, 330; Botany 205, 225, 410; Environmental Studies 205, 210, 312, 313; Chemistry 316.
  4. Two courses from the following:  Any Biology, Botany, Chemistry, or Environmental Studies course listed in #2 or #3; Environmental Studies 205, 209, 259, 497-498; Environmental Studies 391, 392, 491, 492, 493, 494 if natural science-based and with permission of the director; Chemistry 104, 204, 214, 223, 224, 316; Mathematics 107 or 206; Physics 107, 108, 109, 110.
  5. Two courses from the following social science group:  Environmental Studies 212 (formerly Economics 307); Environmental Studies 207, 243, 251, 258, 311, 326, 450; Environmental Studies 391, 392, 491, 492, 493, 494 if social science-based and with permission of the director; Government 260; Philosophy 228.
  6. One senior-level seminar chosen from the following:  Environmental Studies 493, 494; Economics 404; Government 493A, or U or 494A, or U.

Advisers for Natural Science Track:  Askins, Chomiak, Hine, Jones, Lizarralde, Loomis, Siver, Thompson, Zimmer

Social Science Track

This track consists of twelve courses distributed as follows:

  1. One of the following:  Environmental Studies 110 or 111.
  2. Two of the following:  Environmental Studies 115 or 120; Biology 105 or Botany 115; Chemistry 101, 103, or 107.
  3. Two of the following (one of which must be a field-based/laboratory course):  Biology 207, 305, 307, 413; Botany 205, 315; Environmental Studies 113, 205, 209, 210, 312 or 313, 314, 315, 316, 410.
  4. Environmental Studies 212 (formerly Economics 307) and one of the following:  Environmental Studies 251, 258, 263, 326, or Government 260.
  5. Four of the following:  Anthropology 202, 234, 307, 350; Economics 205, 404; Environmental Studies 207, 251, 258, 295, 296, 307, 308, 311, 312, 326, 497-498; Environmental Studies 243, 391, 392, 450, 491, 492, 493, 494 if social science-based and with permission of the director; Government 260; Government 493 or 494 with permission of the director; Philosophy 221, 228; Psychology 320.
  6. One senior-level seminar chosen from the following:  Environmental Studies 493, 494; Economics 404; Government 493A, 494A, 493U, or 494U.

Advisers for Social Science Track:  Borrelli, Dawson, Frasure, Graesch, Lizarralde, Patton, Turner, Visgilio

The Minor in Environmental Studies

The minor in Environmental Studies will consist of a minimum of six courses.  At least four of the courses for the minor must be at or above the 200 level and four must be Environmental Studies courses.

  1. One of the following: Environmental Studies 110 or 111
  2. One course from Area 4 or 5 of the social science track of the major
  3. One course from Area 2, 3, or 4 of the natural science track of the major; or Biology 207
  4. Two additional courses that count for the major in Environmental Studies
  5. A senior-level seminar:  Environmental Studies 493 or 494, or an environmental-related equivalent course with permission of the director. 

Advisers:  Askins, Borrelli, Chomiak, Dawson, Frasure, Graesch, Hine, Jones, Lizarralde, Patton, Siver, Thompson, Turner, Visgilio, Zimmer

Learning Goals for the Environmental Studies Major

The major in Environmental Studies is a highly interdisciplinary program that includes study in both the natural and social sciences.  Students examine environmental issues using an integrated, holistic approach, and have numerous opportunities to work closely with faculty to develop a deeper understanding of the discipline.  Connecticut College graduates with a major in Environmental Studies will:

  • Demonstrate a general understanding of environmental studies that spans and is informed by scholarly insights from both the natural and social science branches of the field.  In particular, graduates will:
  • Demonstrate a strong understanding and appreciation of the natural world that draws on physical, biological, and/or chemical perspectives. Graduates will demonstrate the ability to apply the scientific method to environmental issues and problems and to collect, analyze, and critique data and formulate conclusions.
  • Demonstrate an appreciation of environmental issues on local, national, and international scales, as well as from the viewpoint of developed versus developing nations.  Students will be conversant in contemporary environmental issues and be able to discuss them from scientific, social, political, and economic points of view, reflecting the multidisciplinary nature of the field.  
  • Demonstrate a deeper understanding of one of the above branches of the field as a result of concentrated coursework and advanced classes within the branch. 
  • Have the opportunity to apply their literacy and skills to address specific environmental issues of their choice though projects in advanced classes or seminars, independent study and/or honors work.
  • Demonstrate the ability to plan, research and write an extended paper on an environmental issue and communicate their findings to both their peers and the general public.

Courses

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  110  ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AS A NATURAL SCIENCE  A study of the basic ecological processes operative in natural systems.  Our dependence upon those systems and the impact of human activities upon them.  The application of the ecological principles, such as energy flow and recycling of resources, to the solution of some of the environmental problems facing society.

               Enrollment limited to 40 students.  P. Siver, C. Jones

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  111  ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AS A SOCIAL SCIENCE  This course will explore the interdisciplinary nature of environmental studies, investigating the linkages between environmental science, the social sciences, and the humanities.  Particular emphasis will be placed on the complex linkage between science and politics, looking at both domestic U.S. environmental problems and policy as well as international and global environmental problems and responses by the international community.  Environmental philosophies, literature, social activism, and economics will also be included in this interdisciplinary introduction to environmental studies.        

               Open to freshmen, sophomores, and juniors.  Enrollment limited to 35 students.  J. Dawson

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  113  ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT  This is the same course as Physics 113.  Refer to the Physics listing for a course description.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  115  INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL GEOLOGY  Plate tectonics as an explanation of the evolution of the earth.  Investigation of the geologic processes responsible for the creation of mountain ranges, volcanoes and earthquakes.  Indoor and outdoor laboratory exercises emphasize the geologic history of New England and the Atlantic Ocean.  This is the same course as Geophysics 115.  Registration is also required in Environmental Studies 115L.

               Three lectures; three hours of laboratory work.  Enrollment limited to 14 students per laboratory section.  This course satisfies General Education Area 1 and is a designated Writing course.  D. Thompson

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  115L  INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL GEOLOGY LAB  Registration is also required in Environmental Studies 115.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  120  INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY  An introduction to the role of humans within the recent geologic environment.  Topics include dangers imposed by geologic hazards, issues of mineral and water resource development and concerns surrounding environmental pollution.  Indoor and outdoor laboratory exercises emphasize regional environmental problems and geologic hazards.  This is the same course as Geophysics 120. Registration is also required in Environmental Studies 120L.

               Three lectures; three hours laboratory work.  Enrollment limited to 14 students per laboratory section.  This course satisfies General Education Area 1.  Staff

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  120L  INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY LAB  Registration is also required in Environmental Studies 120.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  155  AMERICAN EARTH:  PURITANS TO THE PRESENT  This is the same course as English 155.  Refer to the English listing for a course description.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  204  ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE IN LATIN AMERICA  This is the same course at Hispanic Studies 204.  Refer to the Hispanic Studies listing for a course description.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  205  ENVIRONMENTAL MODELING  This is the same course as Mathematics 205.  Refer to the Mathematics listing for a course description.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  207  SEMINAR ON INDIGENOUS USE OF TROPICAL RAINFORESTS  This is the same course as Botany 207.  Refer to the Botany listing for a course description.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  209  BIOENERGY  This is the same course as Botany 209.  Refer to the Botany listing for a course description.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  210  HYDROLOGY  An introduction to the hydrologic water cycle and an investigation of rainfall and runoff processes.  Topics include evaporation, precipitation, infiltration, flow through porous media, overland flow, ground water contamination, and water supply.  This is the same course as Geophysics 210.

               Three hours lecture.  Prerequisite:  One introductory Connecticut College course in astronomy, biology, botany, chemistry, environmental studies, geophysics, or physics.  Enrollment limited to 30 students.  D. Thompson

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  211  WEATHER AND CLIMATE:  PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE  An introduction to global climate processes and meteorology.  The course investigates current global circulation and weather patterns, the reconstruction of past climates based on geologic evidence, and the science of climate change prediction.  Topics include variations in climate with latitude, precipitation generation, weather prediction, paleoclimate indicators, and global climate modeling.  This is the same course as Geophysics 211.

               Three hours lecture.  Prerequisite:  One introductory Connecticut College course in astronomy, biology, botany, chemistry, environmental studies, geophysics, or physics.  Enrollment limited to 30 students.  D. Thompson

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  212  ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS  This is the same course as Economics 212.  Refer to the Economics listing for a course description.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  220  ALTERNATIVE MODERNITY AND INDIGENOUS POETICS  This is the same course as Comparative Race and Ethnicity/East Asian Studies 220.  Refer to the East Asian Studies listing for a course description.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  224  URBAN SOCIOLOGY  This is the same course as Sociology 224.  Refer to the Sociology listing for a course description

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  231  ENVIRONMENTAL COMMUNICATION  An exploration of how messages about nature and the environment are transmitted in and through our culture.  What makes an environmental message comprehensible, meaningful, and effective?  How can one communicate more completely and accurately with diverse publics?  Students will apply theories taught in class to create a communication campaign for an environmental organization.  The only prerequisite is a basic familiarity with environmental issues.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  Staff

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  243  SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE  This is the same course as Architectural Studies 243.  Refer to the Architectural Studies listing for a course description.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  249  THE SCIENCE AND ETHICS OF EXTINCTION  This is the same course as Philosophy 249.  Refer to the Philosophy listing for a course description.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  251  ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVISM AND ITS POLITICAL IMPACT AROUND THE GLOBE  This is the same course as Government/Slavic Studies 251.  Refer to the Government listing for a course description.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  252  SOCIAL JUSTICE AND ENVIRONMENT This is the same course as Comparative Race and Ethnicity/Gender and Women's Studies/History 252.  Refer to the History listing for a course description.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  258  U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY AND POLITICS  This is the same course as Government 258.  Refer to the Government listing for a course description.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  259  MINING AND THE ENVIRONMENT  An introduction to the geology of mineral deposits, their exploitation, and the impact of mining activities on the environment.  Emphasis on sustainable mining practices.  A one day field trip is required.  Some knowledge of chemistry is strongly recommended.  This is the same course as Geophysics 259.

               Prerequisite:  Environmental Studies/Geophysics 115 or 120.  Enrollment limited to 15 students.  B. Chomiak

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  260  PROBLEMS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY AND LAW  This is the same course as Government 260.  Refer to the Government listing for a course description.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  261  TREES, RIVERS, AND PEOPLE:  ENVIRONMENTAL CONSCIOUSNESS IN GERMANY  This is the same course as German Studies 261.  Refer to the German Studies listing for a course description.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  263  THE INTERNATIONAL POLITICS OF CLIMATE CHANGE  This is the same course as Government 263.  Refer to the Government listing for a course description.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  290  GOODWIN-NIERING CENTER CERTIFICATE SEMINAR  A service-learning project, together with a combination of guest lectures and student presentations on current environmental issues for participants in the GOODWIN-NIERING CENTER Certificate Program.

               Prerequisite:  Acceptance in GOODWIN-NIERING CENTER Certificate Program.  Four credits per semester.  Staff

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  307  ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY This is the same course as Anthropology 307.  Refer to the Anthropology listing for course description.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  308  METHODS AND THEORIES OF ETHNOBOTANY This is the same course as Anthropology/Botany 308.  Refer to the Botany listing for a course description.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  310 CONSERVATION BIOLOGY  This is the same course as Biology 310.  Refer to the Biology listing for a course description.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  311  ETHNOBOTANY OF SOUTHERN NEW ENGLAND  This is the same course as Anthropology/Botany 311.  Refer to either the Anthropology or the Botany listing for a course description.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  312  INTRODUCTION TO VECTOR-BASED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS  Introduction to the concepts and practices of vector-based geographic information systems.  Students will learn how to create, manipulate, display and analyze geographic data using the ArcGIS desktop software suite on PC computers.  A final project that uses spatial analysis to solve a geographic problem of interest to the student is required.

               Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors.  Enrollment limited to 12 students.  B. Chomiak

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  313  INTRODUCTION TO RASTER-BASED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS  Introduction to the concepts and practices of raster-based geographic information systems.  Students will learn how to create, manipulate, display and analyze geographic data using the ArcGIS desktop software suite on PC computers.  A final project that uses spatial analysis to solve a geographic problem of interest to the student is required.

               Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors.  Enrollment limited to 12 students.  B. Chomiak

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  314  EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS  A general investigation of geomorphic processes and the resultant landforms.  The physical mechanisms important in landscape development will be examined.  Topics include erosion and deposition by the ocean, rivers, glaciers and landslides.  Laboratory focuses on field observation and field measurement techniques.  This is the same course as Geophysics 314.

               Three hours lecture; three hours of field laboratory work.  Prerequisite:  Environmental Studies/Geophysics 115 or 210 or Environmental Studies 120 or permission of the instructor.  Enrollment limited to 14 students.  This is a designated Writing course.  D. Thompson

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  315  RIVER ENVIRONMENTS:  SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, AND MANAGEMENT  An exploration of the physical characteristics of rivers with respect to the force of flowing water, the resultant channel morphology, and aquatic-habitat types.  Topics include fluid mechanics, principles of conservation of mass and energy, channel resistance, and development of secondary flow patterns in rivers.  Discussion of the link between channel complexity, sediment sorting, and use by aquatic organisms will be discussed with a focus on fisheries management for anadromous and coldwater fish species.  This is the same course as Geophysics 315.

               Three hours lecture; three hours of field laboratory work.  Prerequisite:  Environmental Studies/ Geophysics 115, 120, or 210; and Mathematics 111; or permission of the instructor.  Enrollment limited to 14 students.  D. Thompson

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  316  COASTAL DYNAMICS OF SOUTHERN NEW ENGLAND  A general investigation of the processes that shape and characterize the world′s oceans and continents.  There will be an emphasis on near-shore and coastal processes as they relate to southern New England.  Topics include plate tectonics, water body dynamics, sediment transport, and the geologic history of the southern New England coast.  Laboratory focuses on field observation and interpretation of marine geophysical data.  This is the same course as Geophysics 316.

               Three hours lecture; three hours of field laboratory work.  Prerequisite:  Environmental Studies/Geophysics 115 or Environmental Studies 120 or permission of the instructor.  Enrollment limited to 14 students.  Staff

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  320  FROM WATTEAU TO CHRISTO:  NATURE IN WESTERN ART FROM THE ENLIGHTENMENT TO MODERNITY, 1700-2000  This is the same course as Art History 320.  Refer to the Art History listing for a course description.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  326  INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL COOPERATION  This is the same course as Government 326.  Refer to the Government listing for a course description.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  336  HUMANS AND OTHER ANIMALS IN NINETEENTH-CENTURY AMERICAN LITERATURE  This is the same course as English 336.  Refer to the English listing for a course description.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  361  ENVIRONMENTAL ART AND ITS ETHICS  This is the same course as Art History 361.  Refer to the Art History listing for a course description.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  367  NOVEL COMMODITIES  This is the same course as English 367.  Refer to the Literatures in English listing for a course description.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  395, 396  GOODWIN-NIERING CENTER CERTIFICATE SEMINAR  A combination of guest lecturers and student presentations on current environmental issues for participants in the GOODWIN-NIERING CENTER Certificate program.

               Prerequisite:  Acceptance in GOODWIN-NIERING CENTER Certificate Program.  Two credits per semester.  Staff

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  450  CULTIVATING CHANGE  This is the same course as Anthropology 450.  Refer to the Anthropology listing for a course description.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  493, 494  ADVANCED STUDY SEMINAR IN ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  A seminar addressing current environmental issues and conflicts such as pollution of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, acidic deposition and global change.  Students will be expected to make presentations and actively participate in discussions.

               Open to juniors and seniors.  Enrollment limited to 12 students.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  493A, 494A  LAW, SCIENCE AND THE ENVIRONMENT  Focus on topical issues relating to law, science and the environment.  The intersection of law and science in the legal environmental arena from both a current events and global perspective.  A. Davis

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  493B, 494B  HUMAN POPULATION GROWTH  The impact of rapid human population growth on the environment and social stability.  Emphasis on historic trends in population growth, the recent decline in birth rates in many parts of the world, changes in agricultural productivity, the implications of rapid urbanization, and the effect of increasing human populations on natural environments and biological diversity.  R. Askins

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  493D, 494D  GEOLOGIC HAZARDS AND HUMANS  An examination of the role of individuals, industry, and government in responding to natural hazards that include floods, hurricanes, volcanoes, and earthquakes.  Emphasis is placed on socioeconomic factors and human’s attempts to control nature that increase human vulnerability and encourage global injustices associated with natural disasters.  D. Thompson

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  493E, 494E  INDIGENOUS PEOPLE, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND BIODIVERSITY  An exploration of the complex context of indigenous peoples and biodiversity in relation to the impact of the world economic development.  The question of sustainable development as a way to preserve the culture of indigenous peoples and biodiversity will be discussed.

               Prerequisite:  Course 110 or permission of the instructor.   M. Lizarralde

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  493F, 494F  MARINE POLLUTION  The course focuses on the science, laws and policies surrounding marine pollution.  Special attention on the development of international and domestic marine pollution laws and their impact on marine transportation of oil and chemicals.  Seminar format, requiring significant class participation, student-led discussions, and a research term paper.

               Enrollment limited to 15 students.  A. Davis

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  493G, 494G  CULTURE, POLITICS AND THE ENVIRONMENT  This is the same course as American Studies/Government 493A, 494A.  See the Government  listing for a course description.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  493K, 494K  ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION  An examination of methods for restoring damaged ecosystems as well as the ethics, feasibility, and obstacles to restoration.  Discussion of scientific literature as well as field trips to restoration sites.  This is the same course as Botany 493K, 494K.

               Prerequisite:  Biology 207 or Botany 315, or permission of the instructor.  C. Jones

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  493M, 494M  SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE  This is the same course as Botany 493M, 494M.  Refer to the Botany listing for a course description.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  493N, 494N  BIOFUELS  This is the same course as Botany 493N, 494N.  Refer to the Botany listing for a course description.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  493T, 494T  THE GREENS IN EUROPE AND BEYOND  This is the same course as German Studies 402/Government 493T, 494T.  Refer to the Government listing for a course description.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  493U, 494U  ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE IN GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE  This is the same course as Government 493U, 494U.

               Enrollment limited to 15 students.  J. Dawson

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  495, 496  GOODWIN-NIERING CENTER CERTIFICATE SEMINAR  A combination of guest lecturers and student presentations on current environmental issues for participants in the GOODWIN-NIERING CENTER Certificate program.

               Prerequisite:  Acceptance in GOODWIN-NIERING CENTER Certificate Program.  Two credits per semester.  Staff

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  295, 296  FIELD WORK IN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION  Field work in science and environmental education; an application of science and education theory in a public education facility.  The student will become acquainted with the teaching structure of program, exhibits and courses through direct participation.

               Prerequisite:  Completion of at least three courses in biology, botany, or environmental studies; permission of the science center staff and the director of the program.  P. Hine

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  291, 292  INDIVIDUAL STUDY

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  391, 392  INDIVIDUAL STUDY

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  491, 492  INDIVIDUAL STUDY

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  497-498  HONORS STUDY

Marine Biological Laboratory Semester at Woods Hole, Massachusetts

Connecticut College is part of a consortium of colleges that participate in a semester away program in environmental sciences at the Ecosystems Center at the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA.  The program offers an intensive immersion in ecological science that emphasizes hands-on laboratory and research experience.  The curriculum consists of an aquatic ecosystems course, a terrestrial ecosystems course, an elective, an independent research project, and a science writing seminar.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  350 at MBL  ANALYSIS OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS  Nature and controls of  processes (production, decomposition, element cycling and biogeochemistry) in freshwater, estuarine and marine ecosystems.  Application of basic principles of ecosystems ecology to investigating contemporary environmental problems such as coastal eutrophication, fisheries exploitation, effects of introduced species, acid deposition and global change.  Four credit hours.

               Three hours of lecture/discussion and seven hours of laboratory and field work per week for 10 weeks.  Required core course of the MBL Semester in Environmental Sciences.  Prerequisite:  Biology 105.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  352 at MBL  ANALYSIS OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS  Introduction to fundamental biogeochemical processes in fields, pastures, tundra and forested ecosystems.  Physiological ecology of land-plants and soil organisms in an ecosystems context.  Impacts of environmental change on the landscape at local, regional and global scales will be discussed.  Four credit hours.

               Three hours of lecture/discussion and seven hours of laboratory and field work per week for 10 weeks.  Required core course of the MBL Semester in Environmental Sciences.  Prerequisite:  Biology 105.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  354 at MBL  SCIENCE WRITERS SEMINAR  Case histories relating to scientific research through writing.  Discussion, critique and practice of composing an effective story and accurately conveying science to the public in lay terms.  Fostering public awareness about science in general and environmental issues in particular.  One credit hour.

               One hour of lecture/discussion for ten weeks.  Required in the MBL Semester in Environmental Sciences.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  355 at MBL  MICROBIAL METHODS IN ECOLOGY  Scientific rationale behind a number of methods suitable for determining the role of microbes in ecosystems.  Students will learn methods in a series of laboratories.  Three credit hours.

               Three hours of lecture/discussion per week for ten weeks.  Elective in the MBL Semester in Environmental Sciences.  Prerequisite:  Biology 105.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  356 at MBL  AQUATIC CHEMISTRY  Theoretical basis for predicting the chemical composition of natural waters and soil solutions at equilibrium toward understanding element cycling in ecosystems.  Major topics include:  acid-base chemistry, dissolution/precipitation, complexation, oxidation and reduction, and adsorption.  Emphasis on problem solving and current environmental issues.  Three credit hours.

               Three hours of lecture/discussion per week for ten weeks.  Elective in the MBL Semester in Environmental Sciences.  Prerequisite:  Either Chemistry 103 and 104 or 107 and 202 or permission of the instructor.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  357 at MBL  MATHEMATICAL MODELING IN ECOSYSTEMS  Dynamic simulation modeling of ecological processes.  The role of models in science, the relationship of models to scientific theories, and methods for testing the performance of models against the real world.  Survey of important models in ecology with a focus on the application of the simple concept of mass balance to simulate population, community and biogeochemical processes.  Three credit hours.

               Three hours of lecture/discussion per week for ten weeks.  Elective in the MBL Semester in Environmental Sciences.  Prerequisite:  Mathematics 112; Computer Programming Experience or permission of the instructor.