History



Professors:  Forster, Paxton, Queen, Stock, Wilson; Associate Professors:  Downs, Garofalo; Assistant Professors:  Bedasse, Chhabria, Davis, Kane, Manion; Associate Professor Canton, chair

The Major in History

The major consists of ten or more history courses.  At least seven of these courses must be above the introductory level, including a minimum of two 400-level courses and a minimum of one upper-level course outside the area of concentration.

As an introduction to the department’s broad offerings, students must take one course in the history of four of the five geographical areas.  This distribution requirement will normally be satisfied by three 100-level courses selected from Course 103 (Africa), Course 105 (United States), Course 107 (Europe), Course 113 or 115 or 116 (Asia), and Course 114 (Latin America and the Caribbean), and by one other 200-, 300-, or 400-level course.  Students are also required to elect one course in Transnational/Global History.  The rubric Transnational/Global History signifies courses in the history department that explore a topic or a theme by encouraging students to move beyond the nation-state, binary oppositions, and a particular region of the world to develop an appreciation of multiple historiographical discourses and recognize the multi-sided contributions to a given theme, topic, or region of the world. 

A First Year Seminar taught by a department professor can be substituted for one of these requirements.  Not all courses satisfy this requirement and selections must be made in consultation with a departmental adviser.  Introductory courses should be completed as early as possible and not later than the end of the junior year.

The major must also include a concentration of at least five courses above the introductory level selected in consultation with a departmental adviser.  The concentration may be planned in one of two ways:

  1. Students may concentrate in one of the five geographical areas taught (Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and United States).
  2. Students may design their own concentration from among the department's courses according to a thematic, methodological or other suitable principle.  Students who design their own concentration must do so in consultation with their adviser.  Suggested themes include Globalization; Empires and Imperialism; Nations and Nationalism; Modern or Pre-Modern History; Race, Class and Gender; and Reforms, Reformations, and Revolutions.

Interdisciplinary work and languages:  The History Department encourages foreign language competency and interdisciplinary work.  Students may count one upper-level language course, chosen in consultation with their adviser, among the three required 300- and 400-level courses in the History major (although a language course may not substitute for the one required 400-level course).  Students may also include one additional course in another discipline, chosen in consultation with their adviser, which enhances their concentration in History.  Majors are strongly encouraged to undertake independent work in Individual Study courses and especially Honors Study.  No student may receive credit for more than 16 history courses.

Advanced Placement:  AP scores of 4 or 5 allow students to place out of appropriate introductory courses, but AP credits do not count toward the completion of the major.  See page 156 of this catalog for general information about Advanced Placement credit.

Advisers:  M. Bedasse, D. Canton, A. M. Davis, J. Downs, M. Forster, L. Garofalo, E. Kane, F. Paxton, S. Queen, C. Stock, L. Wilson

The Minor in History

The minor consists of five courses, at least one of which must be at the 300 or 400 level, and no more than one at the introductory level.  Students who concentrate in one of the six areas of focus (United States, Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and World), must include one course from another area of focus.  Students may also, in consultation with their adviser, devise a thematic concentration.  In all cases, history minors may include one course from another department among the required five, if it enhances their concentration and is at the 200-level or above.

Learning Goals in the History Major

The history major is one of the oldest recognized majors at Connecticut College.  Its curriculum has long reached beyond Euro-America to include the histories of people and nations on all continents.  In the past decade, the department has increasingly emphasized comparative, transnational, and interdisciplinary perspectives through new course development, faculty hiring, and thematic tracks in the major.  We expect students to develop an awareness and critical understanding of both the universality and the particularity of human experience, including differentiating factors such as religion, race, ethnicity, gender, and sexuality.  We also expect students to understand the development of structures of power and their consequences over time and space.  These structures include patriarchy, capitalism, imperialism, and nationalism.

Students in the history major will learn to:

  • Read primary and secondary sources critically.  Critical reading includes the ability to identify the perspective of the author, the relationship between the author and the audience, and the author’s intended and unintended meanings.  Students also learn to explain an author′s main argument and place it within the context of larger historiographic issues and/or a broader range of original sources when appropriate.
  • Write clearly about historical topics, themes, and sources.  Effective writing includes the ability to write both short well-argued response essays and longer research papers that incorporate primary and secondary sources derived from students′ own investigations.  Some students choose a year-long honors project that requires extensive planning, conceptualizing, researching, and writing in close collaboration with a faculty advisor through an honors seminar.
  • Conduct historical research by locating primary resources both in libraries and at local archives, and by using online research databases, interlibrary loan, and other scholarly repositories.
  • Communicate ideas about readings and research orally to a group of peers and professors.

Courses

Introductory Courses

HISTORY  101  BIG HISTORY:  THE BIG BANG TO THE FUTURE  History on the largest scale:  the origins of the universe to the present.  An investigation of the fundamental forces shaping change and continuity across time, with an eye to how history and the historical sciences learn about the past.  From the Big Bang to the evolution of humanity and our unfolding story.

               Enrollment limited to 40 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7.  F. Paxton

HISTORY  103  INTRODUCTION TO AFRICAN HISTORY  A survey of the forces that have shaped African societies, religions, politics, and thought.

               Offered both semesters.  Enrollment limited to 40 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7 and is a designated Writing course.  D. Ray

HISTORY  105  U.S. NATIVES AND NEWCOMERS  The U.S. from its colonial origins to the present.  Emphasis on the American Revolution, the Civil War and Reconstruction, the end of isolation, social reform, the welfare state, the Cold War, and the 1960s.

               Offered both semesters.  Enrollment limited to 40 students.  D. Canton, J. Downs, C. Stock, L. Wilson

HISTORY  106  THE MONGOLS AND THEIR LEGACIES  An introduction to the history of Eurasia from the 13th century to the present.  We will begin with a discussion of ″what is Eurasia,″ asking why it is that the sectioning off and study of something called "Eurasia" has become popular since the collapse of the USSR in 1991-1992.  This is the same course as Slavic Studies 106.

               Enrollment limited to 40 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7 and is a designated Writing course.  E. Kane

HISTORY  107  EUROPE:  MEDIEVAL TO MODERN  The development of the dominant ideas and institutions of Europe.

               Offered both semesters.  Enrollment limited to 40 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7.  M. Forster, F. Paxton

HISTORY  108  GREECE  This is the same course as Classics 101.  Please refer to the Classics listing for a course description.

HISTORY  113  CONTESTING INDIA'S PAST  An introduction to the histories of South Asian societies from pre-history to the present.  The course surveys the broad trajectories which have made South Asian pasts and highlights the contests for the right to tell history throughout the centuries.  Consideration is given to social, cultural, economic, and political issues.

               Offered both semesters.  Enrollment limited to 40 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7.  S. Chhabria

HISTORY  114   LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN  Amerindian cultures, invasion and settlement by Iberians and West Africans, and colonialism and independence.  Central themes include the roots of indigenous civilizations; conquest and the creation of new societies; colonial social and economic structures; and the dynamics of race, occupation, and gender.  This course may include an optional section that will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplemental readings in Spanish.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.

               Enrollment limited to 40 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7 and is a designated Writing course.  L. Garofalo

HISTORY  114f  LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN  (In Spanish)  This optional section will meet for additional hour each week to discuss supplemental texts in Spanish.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.  Students electing Course 114f must concurrently register for Course 114.  L. Garofalo

HISTORY  115  IMAGINING THE CHINESE EMPIRE  An examination of the major religious, political, and philosophical movements that have shaped Chinese civilization in the past and present.

               Enrollment limited to 40 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7 and is a designated Writing course.  S. Queen

HISTORY  116  HISTORIES OF JAPAN Japanese political, cultural, and economic transformations from 600 C.E. to the present.

               Enrollment limited to 40 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7.  Staff

Intermediate Courses

HISTORY  201  INTRODUCTION TO AMERICAN STUDIES  This is the same course as American Studies 201D/201M/201S.  Refer to the American Studies listing for a course description.

HISTORY  202  EMPIRE AND EXPANSION IN EAST ASIA, 1840s-1950s  A consideration of colonial expansion in East Asia from the mid-19th to the mid-20th century.  The course explores the competition for imperial status among major world powers, including Great Britain, France, the U.S., Netherlands, and Japan, within the contexts of industrialization, nationalism, new imperialism, and world war.  This is the same course as East Asian Studies 202.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7 and is a designated Writing course.  A. M. Davis

HISTORY  203  THE COLONIAL HISTORY OF NORTH AMERICA  A study of Native peoples, African captives, and Europeans in the Atlantic world context.  Emphasis on cultural encounters, both peaceful and violent.  This is the same course as American Studies 203.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This is a designated Writing course.  L. Wilson

HISTORY  204  THE AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY ERA  An examination of the origins, character, and interpretations of the American revolution.  Topics include the Great Awakening, domestic problems and imperial crisis, collapse of the old order, the revolutionary mentality and the mobilization of citizens, Articles of Confederation and the Critical Period, the federal constitution, and the new conception of society and politics.  This is the same course as American Studies 204.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This is a designated Writing course.  L. Wilson

HISTORY  205  HISTORY OF THE SOUTH  An investigation of the history of politics, society, and economics in the U.S. South from the seventeenth-century to the mid-twentieth century.  Topics include settlement and the Native Americans; slavery and emancipation; the planter class and the yeomanry; populism and industrialization; the New South and Jim Crow; civil rights and the rise of the conservative right.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  J. Downs

HISTORY  206  THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION  Political and social history of the years 1831 to 1877, with emphasis on the growth of sectionalism, slavery, abolition, the course and consequence of the war, and Reconstruction.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  J. Downs

HISTORY  208  THE VIKINGS  An examination of the reputation of the Vikings−were they ruthless marauders or much-maligned tourists?  One goal is to question the reliability of various sources:  sagas, poetry, annals, and material culture.  The course considers the breadth of Viking influence, from North America to Byzantium.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7 and is a designated Writing course.  Staff

HISTORY  209  THEORIZING RACE AND ETHNICITY  This is the same course as American Studies/Comparative Race and Ethnicity 206.  Refer to the American Studies listing for a course description.

HISTORY  209f  THEORIZING RACE AND ETHNICITY  (In Spanish)  This is the same course as American Studies 206f/Comparative Race and Ethnicity 206f.  Refer to the American Studies listing for a course description.

HISTORY  212  ″RACE″ IN COLONIAL LATIN AMERICA  This course explores how concepts of "race" and enduring systems of discrimination emerged from Spain and Portugal's imperial projects.  Long before scientific racism, the Spanish and Portuguese colonizers and architects of the Atlantic slave trade developed ways to mark difference and organize America's indigenous, Iberian, and African societies according to hierarchies of ethnicity, honor, gender,and religious purity.

              Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7.  L. Garofalo

HISTORY  213  THE AMERICAN WEST  The exploration, settlement, and the political, social, and cultural development of the trans-Mississippi West from 1803 to 1890.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  C. Stock

HISTORY  214  POLITICS AND CULTURE IN THE UNITED STATES, 1890 TO 1945  An examination of political and cultural developments in the U.S., including the Progressive Movement, the 1920s, the Great Depression and New Deal, and the coming of World War II.  This is the same course as American Studies 214. 

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This is a designated Writing course.  C. Stock, Staff

HISTORY  215  POLITICS AND CULTURE IN THE UNITED STATES SINCE 1945  An examination of the major political and cultural developments of post-war U.S., including the creation of the military-industrial state, suburbanization, the Great Society and Vietnam War, the freedom movements of the 1960s, the conservative resurgence of the 1980s, and the Gulf Wars.  This is the same course as American Studies/Comparative Race and Ethnicity 215.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  Open to freshmen, sophomores, and juniors; and to seniors with permission of the instructor.  This is a designated Writing course.  C. Stock, Staff

HISTORY  216  MODERN LATIN AMERICA  Latin America after independence, 1800s to the present.  Covers the struggles over citizenship, slavery, European immigration, racial and gendered exclusion, and models of development and progress.  Focus on the Andes, Brazil, Mexico, Haiti, and the Spanish Caribbean.  This course may include an optional section that will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplemental readings in Spanish.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7 and is a designated Writing course.  L. Garofalo

HISTORY  216f  MODERN LATIN AMERICA (In Spanish)  This optional section will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplemental readings in Spanish.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.  Students electing Course 216f must concurrently register for History 216.  L. Garofalo

HISTORY  217  SAME-SEX SEXUALITY IN WORLD HISTORY  An examination of the history of same-sex love and sexuality in Europe, Asia, Africa, Latin America, and North America from ancient times to the twentieth century.  Topics include the changing nature and understanding of same-sex love, desire, and sexual acts; the relationship between legal, religious, and social views of same-sex sexuality; the way other cultural norms and social categories shaped attitudes towards same-sex sex.  This is the same course as American Studies/Gender and Women′s Studies 217.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7 and is a designated Writing course.  J. Manion

HISTORY  218  GLOBAL QUEER HISTORIES  An examination of global queer histories from the great political revolutions of the late 18th century (American, Haitian, and French) to the global LGBTQ rights revolution in modern times.  Topics include the changing understanding of same-sex love, desire, and sexual attraction in relation to race, culture, religion, gender, economic, and political systems.  This is the same course as American Studies/Gender and Women's Studies 218.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7.  J. Manion

HISTORY  219  REVOLUTIONS IN LATIN AMERICA  Rebellions and revolutions from the 1780s to the present in Mexico, Cuba and Haiti, and the Andes.  What motivated men and women to rebel, or to launch peaceful social movements?  How did ideologies regarding elections and economic models guide revolutionaries−armed or not−to transform all aspects of life including gender roles, religion, and race relations?  This course may include an optional section that will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplemental readings in Spanish.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.  This is the same course as Comparative Race and Ethnicity 219.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7.  L. Garofalo

HISTORY  219f  REVOLUTIONS IN LATIN AMERICA  (In Spanish)  This optional section will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplemental readings in Spanish.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.  Students electing Course 219f must concurrently register for History 219.  L. Garofalo

HISTORY  220  GENDER IN THE ANDES AND MEXICO  An exploration of sexual difference and gender ideologies in Peru and Mexico at key historical moments, from men and women's roles in Amerindian civilizations to women's revolutionary leadership and sexual politics today.  This is the same course as Gender and Women's Studies 222.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7.  L. Garofalo

HISTORY  221  THE IMPERIAL CHINESE WORLD TO 1800  A survey of 2000 years of Chinese history, from the first emperor to the eighteenth-century glories of the Qing dynasty.  The course examines the lives of diverse people to develop a picture of social change in dialogue with political and intellectual shifts.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  Staff

HISTORY  222  WORLD WAR II AND POST-WAR JAPAN  An examination of Japan′s involvement in the Pacific War (i.e., the Pacific Theater of World War II) from the 1930s until surrender in 1945.  In addition to exploring major events that led to war, the course emphasizes the legacies of war including post-war occupation, the U.S.-Japan security alliance, and national memory in ensuing decades.  This is the same course as East Asian Studies 222.  This course may include an optional section that will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplemental readings in Japanese.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.

              Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7 and is a designated Writing course.  A.M. Davis and T. Watanabe

HISTORY  222f  WORLD WAR II AND POST-WAR JAPAN  (In Japanese)  This optional section will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplemental texts in Japanese.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.  Students electing Course 222f must concurrently register for History/East Asian Studies 222.  A. Davis and T. Watanabe

HISTORY  223  MODERN CHINESE HISTORY FROM 1800:  THE PAST IN THE PRESENT  A survey of Chinese history since 1800 and of the conflicting stories and arguments that have been made about the past.  Students will examine and challenge narratives of China's decline and rise by exploring histories on varying scales and in different spaces.  Focus on gender, ethnicity, and class.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  Staff

HISTORY  224  CONFUCIAN TRADITIONS  A history from Confucius to contemporary times focusing on philosophical and religious dimensions of the tradition in comparative perspective.  This is the same course as Philosophy 213/Religious Studies 215.  Course 224 may include an optional section that will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplemental readings in Chinese.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.

             Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7 and is a designated Writing course.  S. Queen

HISTORY  224f  CONFUCIAN TRADITIONS  (In Chinese)  This optional section will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplemental readings in Chinese.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.  Students electing History 224f must concurrently register for History 224/Philosophy 213/Religious Studies 215.  S. Queen

HISTORY  225  AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY 1865-PRESENT  An examination of the development of the African American community in the United States from the end of slavery to the present.  Emphasis on the political, social, and economic impact of racism, sexism, and classism.  Themes include reconstruction, segregation, the great migration, black protest, black leadership, and the modern civil rights movement.  This is the same course as American Studies/Comparative Race and Ethnicity 225.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This is a designated Writing course.  D. Canton

HISTORY  226  MAKING MODERN SOUTH ASIA  A survey of modern South Asian history from 1600 to 1978, or Akbar through Indira Gandhi.  The course begins at the height of the Mughal Empire with Akbar, and follows Mughal dissolution, the arrival of European trading companies, new forms of imperialism and colonialism, nationalist resistance, partition, and third-worldism.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7.  S. Chhabria

HISTORY  227  AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY 1619-1865  An examination of the development of the African American community in the United States from pre-colonial West Africa to 1865.  Themes include slavery, slave communities, African cultural retention and synthesis, slave resistance, free black communities, black leadership, and the construction of race in North America.  Emphasis on the political, social, and economic impact of racism, sexism, and classism.  This is the same course as American Studies/Comparative Race and Ethnicity 227.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This is a designated Writing course.  D. Canton

HISTORY 229  PROPAGANDA AND TRUTH IN THE AGE OF AUGUSTUS  This is the same course as Classics 229.  Refer to the Classics listing for a course description.

HISTORY  230  ROMAN IMPERIALISM AND ITS CRITICS  This is the same course as Classics 230.  Refer to the Classics listing for a course description.

HISTORY  231  ROMANS, BARBARIANS, AND THE CHILDREN OF ABRAHAM, 300-1000 C.E.  The transformation of the classical world and the emergence of the ″Sibling Cultures″ of Latin and Greek Christendom, Rabbinic Judaism, and the Dar al-Islam.  This is the same course as Classics 231.

             Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7 and is a designated Writing course.  F. Paxton

HISTORY  232  LATER MIDDLE AGES:  CHRISTIANS, MUSLIMS, AND JEWS  The history of the ″Sibling Cultures″ of Latin and Greek Christendom, Rabbinic Judaism, and the Dar al-Islam, ca. 1000-1453 C.E.  From the Crusades to the Fall of Constantinople.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7 and is a designated Writing course.  F. Paxton

HISTORY  234  MODERN EUROPE, 1790s-1990s  An introduction to the major political, social, cultural, and intellectual trends in Europe during this 200-year period.  The course focuses on three themes − imperialism, revolution, and gender − and emphasizes the historical experience of Jews and Muslims in Europe.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7 and is a designated Writing course.  E. Kane

HISTORY  237  EARLY MODERN EUROPE, 1500-1750  The social, economic, political, and cultural transformations of Europe between the Reformation and the French Revolution; the rise of centralized states; developments in agrarian societies; and the growth of commercial capitalism.  Course 237 may include an optional section that will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplemental readings in German.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7 and is a designated Writing course.  M. Forster

HISTORY  237f  EARLY MODERN EUROPE, 1500-1750  (In German)  This optional section will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplemental texts in German.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.  Students electing Course 237f must concurrently register for Course 237.  M. Forster

HISTORY  238  THE RENAISSANCE  The cultural transformation of Europe between the 14th and 16th centuries, with emphasis on the social and political contexts of the Italian Renaissance; the spread of the Renaissance to the rest of Europe and its long-term impact.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7 and is a designated Writing course.  M. Forster

HISTORY  239  REFORMATION AND COUNTER-REFORMATION  The causes and impact of the Protestant and Catholic Reformations across Europe.  The consequences of religious reform for religious belief and practice, politics, and society.  The theologies of Luther, Zwingli, Calvin, and Loyola; religious conflict; and the long-term results of the Reformation.  Course 239 may include an optional section that will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplemental readings in German.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.

              Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7.  M. Forster

HISTORY  239f  REFORMATION AND COUNTER-REFORMATION  (In German)  This optional section will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplemental texts in German.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.  Students electing Course 239f must concurrently register for Course 239.  M. Forster

HISTORY  242 THE HISTORY OF WOMEN AND GENDER IN THE UNITED STATES  History of Asian, African American, Euro American, Latina, and Native American women in the United States.  Topics include race and gender, comparative gender roles in diverse cultures, and their development in the United States.  This is the same course as American Studies/Gender and Women's Studies 242.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  Formerly History 464; cannot receive credit for both courses.  This is a designated Writing course.  L. Wilson

HISTORY  243  A DIFFICULT PAST:  GERMAN HISTORY, 1850-2000  An examination of German history in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries focusing on the uses and abuses of the study of the past.  The nationalist narrative of German history, the centrality of Hitler, Nazism, and the Holocaust, and the nature of political and cultural division in the Cold War era.  This is the same course as German Studies 243.  This course may include an optional section that will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplemental readings in German.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7.  M. Forster

HISTORY  243f  A DIFFICULT PAST:  GERMAN HISTORY, 1850-2000 (In German)  This optional section of German Studies/History 243 will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplemental readings in German.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.  Students electing Course 243f must concurrently register for German Studies/History 243.  This is the same course as German Studies 243f.  M. Forster

HISTORY  247  THE SOVIET UNION AND ITS LEGACIES  An exploration of how the Soviet Union – the world's first socialist state – came into being, why it eventually fell apart, and its legacies up to today.  This is the same course as Slavic Studies 247.  This course may include an optional section that will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplemental readings in Russian.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive an additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7.  E. Kane

HISTORY  247f  THE SOVIET UNION AND ITS LEGACIES (in Russian)  This optional section will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplemental texts in Russian.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.  Students electing History/Slavic Studies 247f must concurrently register for History/Slavic Studies 247.  This is the same course as Slavic Studies 247f.

HISTORY  248  NARRATIVES OF ILLNESS  An introduction to the history of medicine and public health.  The course considers how the meaning of illness changes over time and varies by place, examining two distinct intersections:  the dialogue between patient and doctor and the relationship between the medical profession and the state.  This is the same course as American Studies 248.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This is a designated Writing course.  J. Downs

HISTORY  249  EARLY ISLAMIC HISTORY  The rise of Islam and the transformation of the Middle East into an Islamic Society.  From Muhammad to the Mongols.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7 and is a designated Writing course.  F. Paxton

HISTORY  250  ISSUES IN THE HISTORY OF MODERN AFRICA, 1884 TO THE PRESENT  An exploration of important themes in the history of modern Africa, based on readings that cover different geographic regions of the African continent.  Topics include the impact of European colonialism, anticolonialism, nationalism, women in modern Africa, and the impact of globalization on Africa.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7 and is a designated Writing course.  Staff

HISTORY  252 SOCIAL JUSTICE AND ENVIRONMENT A study of how changes to the land and ecology both shape human history and result from human action.  The course considers the impact of conquest and colonization on environmental history.  Assignments focus on the ways in which neocolonial exploitation of resources and populations provoke bitter struggles over environmental justice across the globe, often involving gendered and racial marginalization.  This course may include an optional section that will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplemental readings in Spanish.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.  This is the same course as Comparative Race and Ethnicity/Environmental Studies/Gender and Women's Studies 252.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7 and is a designated Writing course.  L. Garofalo

HISTORY  252f  SOCIAL JUSTICE AND ENVIRONMENT (In Spanish)  This optional section will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplemental readings in Spanish.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.  Students electing History 252f must concurrently register for Comparative Race and Ethnicity/Environmental Studies/Gender and Women’s Studies/History 252.  This is the same course as Comparative Race and Ethnicity 252f.  L. Garofalo

HISTORY  253  AFRICA IN THE AMERICAS  An introduction to the history of the African diaspora with a focus on the Americas.  The course will engage the following questions:  What is the African diaspora?  What led to the dispersal of Africans throughout the Americas?  What is the impact of the African presence on the New World?  How have diasporic Africans constructed identities and how have such identities shifted over time?

              Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7 and is a designated Writing course.  M. Bedasse

HISTORY  254  CONFRONTING IMAGES OF MODERN JAPAN  Samurai, geisha, and Godzilla:  such iconic images of modern Japan and their antecedents will be examined through texts and visual materials, traditional as well as popular, including manga and anime.  The course considers how these representations fit into their historical milieu both in the West and in Japan.  In questioning these images, students will confront entrenched conceptualizations of east and west, modernity, gender, and race.  This is the same course as East Asian Studies 254.  This course may include an optional section that will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplemental readings in Japanese.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.

              Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7.  T. Watanabe

HISTORY 254f  CONFRONTING IMAGES OF MODERN JAPAN (In Japanese)  This optional section will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplement readings in Japanese.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.  Students electing East Asian Studies/History 254f must concurrently register for East Asian Studies/History 254.  This is the same course as East Asian Studies 254f.  T. Watanabe

HISTORY  255  SOUTH ASIA IN THE POSTCOLONIAL WORLD  A survey of South Asia (mainly focusing on India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka) from 1947 to the present, contextualizing major political issues which are common to the postcolonial world:  forms of violence, statecraft, development, and democracy.  We will read thematically to understand the region's contemporary history.  This is the same course as Comparative Race and Ethnicity 255.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7.  S. Chhabria

HISTORY  257  LATINOS IN THE UNITED STATES  An introduction to Latinos' historical experiences and the historical context in the Caribbean and Latin America that led to the migrations of Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, Cubans, Mexicans, and Central Americans.  Topics include migration and settlement, civil rights movements, and the contemporary transnational nature of the Latino/a experience.  This is the same course as American Studies/Comparative Race and Ethnicity 257.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  E. Garcia

HISTORY  262  MODERN CHINA:  CHANGING NATIONAL IDENTITIES IN A TRANSNATIONAL EAST ASIA  The collapse of the old empire and the reforms, rebellions, and revolutions that have shaped China's efforts to construct a new social and political order.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7.  S. Queen

HISTORY  264  THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE, 1700-1920s  An exploration of the rise and fall of the Russian Empire from its beginnings under Peter the Great to its transformation into the Soviet Union after the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917.  Major themes explored in the course will include:  imperial expansion, internal diversity, and various 19th −century challenges to empire. This is the same course as Slavic Studies 264.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7.  E. Kane

HISTORY  269  IMMIGRATION TO THE U.S. SINCE 1820  An overview of immigration to the United States in three periods, 1820-1860, 1890-1924, and 1965-Present.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  C. Stock

HISTORY  270  HISTORY OF SEXUALITY IN THE U. S.  Through social history and queer theory, the course will chart the idea that sex has a history and examine how the study of sexuality connects with larger themes in U.S. social, political, and cultural history.  Topics include reproduction, birth control, prostitution, sexual health and disease, interracial sexualities, same-sex relationships, and heterosexuality.  This is the same course as American Studies/Gender and Women's Studies 270.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This course is not open to students who have received credit for American Studies/Gender and Women′s Studies/History 453.  J. Manion

HISTORY  272  BERLIN  This interdisciplinary team-taught course will examine the history, culture, and architecture of the city of Berlin since the 18th century.  Readings in history, literature, and urban studies will focus on the Berlin of old Prussia and Bismarck through the Weimar era and the Nazi dictatorship up to the divided city of the Cold War and the Berlin of Reunification.  This is the same course as German Studies 272.  This course may include an optional section that will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplemental readings in German.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7 and is a designated Writing course.  G. Atherton, M. Forster

HISTORY  272f  BERLIN  (In German)  This optional section will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplemental texts in German.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.  Students electing Course 272f must concurrently register for History/German Studies 272.  This is the same course as German Studies 272f.  G. Atherton, M. Forster

HISTORY  278  DAOIST TRADITIONS  A history from Laozi to contemporary times focusing on the philosophical and mystical aspects of the tradition in comparative perspective.  This is the same course as Philosophy 214/Religious Studies 216.  Course 278 may include an optional section that will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplemental readings in Chinese.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.

               Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7 and is a designated Writing course.  S. Queen

HISTORY  278f  DAOIST TRADITIONS  (In Chinese)  This optional section will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplemental readings in Chinese.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.  Students electing History 278f must concurrently register for History 278/Philosophy 214/Religious Studies 216.  S. Queen

HISTORY  293  INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH  This is the same course as Sophomore Research Seminar 299G/Art/English/Theater 293.  Refer to the Sophomore Research Seminar listing in College Courses for a course description.

HISTORY  299  CASES AND HISTORY OF EQUALITY  This is the same course as Sophomore Research Seminar 299A.  Refer to the Sophomore Research Seminar listing in College Courses for a course description.

Advanced Courses

HISTORY  304  THE HISTORY OF HIP HOP MUSIC AND CULTURE IN POST INDUSTRIAL AMERICA 1973-PRESENT  This course explores the political, social, and cultural impact of Hip Hop Music and Culture in American society and the world including the different forms of rap music (pop, social conscious, and southern) and explores the tensions between authenticity and mass appeal.  The course also examines the impact that deindustrialization, Reaganomics, and the dot.com boom had on the artists and the industry.

               Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Enrollment limited to 20 students.  This is a designated Writing course.  D. Canton

HISTORY  306  GLOBALIZATION OF URBAN POVERTY  An examination of the post-World War II history of urban poverty, labor, housing, and slums in the non-western world, with the aim of understanding the most recent manifestations of globalization and inequality.

               Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors.  Enrollment limited to 20 students.  This course satisfies General Education Area 7.  S. Chhabria

HISTORY  309  THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY AND EMANCIPATION IN THE AMERICAS  This course will examine the origins of slavery in the Americas focusing on the United States, but also considering the slavery in the Caribbean and Latin America.  Topics include the slave trade, the organization of labor, gender and family relations, resistance and rebellion, slave culture, and emancipation.  This is the same course as American Studies/Gender and Women′s Studies 309.

               Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Enrollment limited to 20 students.  This is a designated Writing course.  J. Downs

HISTORY  313  THE AMERICAN WEST IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY  A readings course that explores the history of the American West in the post-frontier era.  Topics include Dust Bowl and New Deal, World War II, the rise of the Red Power and Chicano rights movements, urbanization, the conservation movement, and the nuclear industry.

               Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors.  Enrollment limited to 20 students.  This is a designated Writing course.  C. Stock

HISTORY  314  GRECO-ROMAN HISTORIOGRAPHY  This is the same course as Classics 314.  Refer to the Classics listing for a course description.

HISTORY  317  EARLY GREECE AND WESTERN CIVILIZATION:  A DISPUTED LEGACY  This is the same course as Classics 317.  Refer to the Classics listing for a course description.

HISTORY  319  THE COLD WAR IN THE THIRD WORLD  An examination of intervention by superpowers in the Third World during the Cold War.  The course considers the following questions:  Why did the developing world become the focus of Cold War rivalries and what did the superpowers hope to gain?  How did nations and leaders in the Third World affect this process?  What are the legacies of American involvement in the developing world?  This is the same course as American Studies 319.

            Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors.  Enrollment limited to 20 students.  This is a designated Writing course.  Staff

HISTORY  320  FROM TEA TO CONNECTICUT ROLLS:  DEFINING JAPANESE CULTURE THROUGH FOOD  An exploration of Japanese food traditions as a site in which cultural values are contested and disseminated for national consumption.  Through study of Japan′s foodways, such as the tea ceremony, sushi, whaling, and fusion cuisines, we uncover the aesthetics, politics, and intercultural exchange that characterize Japanese history.  This is the same course as East Asian Studies 320.  This course may include an optional section that will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplemental readings in Japanese.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.

                Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors.  Enrollment limited to 20 students.  T. Watanabe

HISTORY  320f  FROM TEA TO CONNECTICUT ROLLS:  DEFINING JAPANESE CULTURE THROUGH FOOD (In Japanese)  This optional section will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplemental readings in Japanese.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.  Students electing Course 320f must concurrently register for East Asian Studies/History 320.  This is the same course as East Asian Studies 320f.  T. Watanabe

HISTORY  322  THE LEGACY OF WORLD WAR II IN ″POST-WAR″ JAPAN  This is the same course as East Asian Studies 322.  Refer to the East Asian Studies listing for a course description.

HISTORY  322f  THE LEGACY OF WORLD WAR II IN ″POST-WAR″ JAPAN (in Japanese)  This is the same course as East Asian Studies 322f.  Refer to the East Asian Studies listing for a course description.

HISTORY  324  DISSENT AND DEMOCRATIZATION IN EAST ASIA  Literary and political protest in modern China, focusing on the voices of China's students and intellectuals.  Emphasis on the relationship between dissent and democratic reform in the modern period.

               Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors.  Enrollment limited to 20 students.  S. Queen

HISTORY  325  HUMAN RIGHTS IN CHINA  An exploration of the history of human rights in China, the ongoing debates over moral universalism and cultural diversity, and the ″Asian values″ debate concerning the influence of Confucian culture on human rights in China and East Asia.

               Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors.  Enrollment limited to 20 students.  S. Queen

HISTORY 326  ETHNOHISTORY OF MINORITY COMMUNITIES IN SOUTHERN NEW ENGLAND  This is the same course as American Studies/Anthropology 325.  Refer to the Anthropology listing for a course description.

HISTORY  330  MEDITATIONS ON THE HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN SOUTH  Using an interdisciplinary approach, this course will explore the history of the southeastern United States from the colonial period to the present by investigating how various writers, artists, and historians have represented and defined the meaning of  "The South."  This is the same course as American Studies/Gender and Women’s Studies 330.

               Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors.  Enrollment limited to 20 students.  This is a designated Writing course.  J. Downs

HISTORY  331  BEYOND SEA, SUNSHINE, AND SOCA:  A HISTORY OF THE CARIBBEAN  An examination of major themes in the history of the Caribbean from the 15th century to the 20th century.  The first half of the course will focus on the 15th century to the 19th century, exploring issues such as Indigenous societies, European encounter and conquest, plantation slavery, the resistance of enslaved Africans, and emancipation.  The remainder of the course focuses on aspects of the cultural, economic, political and social experiences of Caribbean peoples during the 20th century.

               Enrollment limited to 20 students.  M. Bedasse

HISTORY  334  HISTORICIZING 9/11 INTERNATIONALLY AND LOCALLY  Explores the historical context of September 11, 2001 through examination of the history of foreign affairs beginning in the late 18th century with the founding of the nation and continuing throughout the 20th century.  The course also investigates the impact of global changes at the local level, particularly in New London.  In an effort to connect the study of history to the larger New London community, the course will include an oral history component that will require students to conduct oral interviews of New London residents on a range of historical issues based on the first objective of the course.  This is the same course as American Studies 334.

               Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors.  Enrollment limited to 20 students.  This is a designated Writing course.  J. Downs

HISTORY  335  SUFI SAINTS AND SOLDIERS:  A HISTORY OF ISLAM IN AFRICA  An examination of African Muslims' perspectives on slavery, politics, race, and gender as demonstrated the by Sufi brotherhoods who gained converts to Islam in Africa from around 1500 CE to the present, both through the ″Greater Jihad″ of spiritual purification and the ″Lesser Jihad″ of the sword.

               Prerequisite:  Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors.  Enrollment limited to 30 students.  This is a designated Writing course.  D. Ray

HISTORY  338  THE MIDDLE AGES IN BIG HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE:  NORTHWESTERN EUROPE AND THE AMERICAN SOUTHWEST, 400-1400 A.D.  The history of the American Southwest during the so-called Middle Ages has much in common with the history of Northwestern Europe.  This course will explore how much, and why, from the perspectives of global climate change and the ways agricultural economies experience cultural efflorescence or decay under similar conditions.

               Open to sophomores, juniors and seniors.  Enrollment limited to 20 students.  This is a designated Writing course.  F. Paxton

HISTORY  340  THE DEEP HISTORY OF HUMANITY  An examination of human history in deep time, from the last ice age to the first civilizations.

               Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors.  Enrollment limited to 20 students.  This is a designated Writing course.  F. Paxton

HISTORY  341  CRIME AND PUNISHMENT IN U.S. HISTORY  An examination of the changing philosophies and practices of crime and punishment from the Enlightenment to modern times.  Topics include moral attitudes toward criminality, the birth of the penitentiary, gender and crime, prison reform work, criminal classification, systemic race and racism, social control and poverty, institutional heterosexism, and the prison industrial complex.  This is the same course as American Studies/Gender and Women's Studies 341.

               Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors.  Enrollment limited to 20 students.  This is a designated Writing course.  J. Manion

HISTORY  344  CROSSING THE SEA:  TRANSATLANTIC DIALOGUE BETWEEN SPAIN AND THE AMERICAS  An interdisciplinary exploration of the permanent, problematic, and enriching dialogue between Spain and the Americas.  This transatlantic interaction began in 1492, reached a breaking point with the 19th century revolutions, and continues to shape the conflicts of our global moment.  Through the analysis of historical texts, literary artifacts, and films, the course considers key issues such as conquest, slavery, modernity, post-colonialism, and immigration.  Sources include Las Casas, Carlos Fuentes, Bolívar, Martí, and Guillermo del Toro.  This is the same course as Comparative Race and Ethnicity/Hispanic Studies 344.  This course may include an optional section that will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplemental readings in Spanish.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.

               Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors.  Enrollment limited to 20 students.  L. Garofalo and L. González

HISTORY  344f  CROSSING THE SEA:  TRANSATLANTIC DIALOGUE BETWEEN SPAIN AND THE AMERICAS (In Spanish)  This optional section will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplemental readings in Spanish.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.  Students electing Hispanic Studies/History 344f must concurrently register for Hispanic Studies/History 344.  This is the same course as Hispanic Studies 344f.  L. Garofalo and L. González

HISTORY  400  LEVEL SEMINARS

Advanced research and reading courses on designated topics.  Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors.  Enrollment in each seminar limited to 16 students.

HISTORY  401  UNMASKING TRIBALISM IN AFRICA  An exploration of how ethnic groups became both custodians of culture and brokers of national politics in Modern Africa.  The seminar will compare media depictions of ″tribal″ violence and culture in Africa with humanitarian reports, witness testimonies, and other African sources to understand local debates about tribalism and genocide.

               This is a designated Writing course.  D. Ray

HISTORY  410  ″DRAG YOU OFF TO MILLEDGEVILLE″:  MIND, POWER, AND MENTAL HEALTH  This is the same course as American Studies/Gender and Women′s Studies 410.  Refer to the Gender and Women′s Studies listing for a course description.

HISTORY  415  EAST AFRICA SINCE 1945  A focuson key historical events and ideas in East Africa since 1945.  Explores the economic, cultural, and political factors that have historically created some regional integration (East Africa as a region), as well as the formation of individual nation states (i.e., Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda).  Significant themes such as nationalism, decolonization, socialism, pan-Africanism, gender, and religion will be explored, with a view to examining the perspectives of different historical actors and the challenges that varying points of view pose to the construction of individual nation-states in East Africa and to the notion of East Africa as a region.  M. Bedasse

HISTORY  416  RASTAFARI, REGGAE, AND RESISTANCE  This seminar traces the history of the Rastafarian movement from its beginnings in Jamaica in the early 1930s to its international popularity.  Themes include Rastafari as culture, Bob Marley as Rastafarian messenger, Rastafari as political theory, Pan-Africanism, and Rastafarian women.

               This is a designated Writing course.  M. Bedasse

HISTORY  417  THE CAROLINGIAN AGE IN EUROPE  Advanced research on the politics, warfare, religion, society, and culture of Europe in the 8th and 9th centuries:  the rise of the Carolingian dynasty, the age of Charlemagne, the Carolingian empire and its collapse

               This is a designated Writing course.  F. Paxton

HISTORY  420  CHINA'S CONFUCIAN LEGACY  Confucian ethics in its traditional setting and its modern transformation.  Emphasis on the ways in which Confucianism has transformed and been transformed by the forces of modernization in East Asia. S. Queen

HISTORY  421  CHINA'S DAOIST LEGACY  An in-depth study of a Daoist text or theme in Daoist history.  This course may include an optional section that will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplemental readings in Chinese.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.

               This is a designated Writing course.  S. Queen

HISTORY  421f  CHINA′S DAOIST LEGACY (In Chinese)  This optional section will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplemental texts in Chinese.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.  Students electing Course 421f must concurrently register for History 421.  S. Queen

HISTORY  426  HISTORY OF GENDER AND SEXUALITY IN JAPAN, 1850s-1980s  An examination of ways in which gender and sexuality have shaped modern and contemporary Japanese history.  Topics include discourses of sexuality, technologies of reproduction, sexual divisions of labor, and the family.  This is the same course as Gender and Women′s Studies 426.

               This is a designated Writing course.  A. M. Davis

HISTORY  427  THE CHINESE BODY  An exploration of Chinese conceptions of the body, bodily health and illness, vitality and power, healing and medicine past and present.  This is the same course as East Asian Studies 427.

               This is a designated Writing course.  S. Queen

HISTORY  440  POPULAR CULTURE IN EARLY MODERN EUROPE  The attempt of European elites to discipline and suppress popular and traditional festivities, rituals, and beliefs.  The significance of the witch craze, popular religion, and popular forms of protest and resistance.

               This is a designated Writing course.  M. Forster

HISTORY  441  THE FRENCH REVOLUTION  The causes, course, and consequences of the French Revolution from 1789 through the Napoleonic Era.  Focus on the collapse of the monarchy, the Reign of Terror, and the rise of Napoleon M. Forster

HISTORY  444  IMPERIAL LIVES:  MERCHANTS, MISSIONARIES, AND MIGRANTS ACROSS THE EUROPEAN EMPIRES  An exploration of how European empires were experienced by the many different kinds of people caught up in them.  We will look at how empire created new connections across vast expanses, caused mixing of peoples, ideas, and cultures that had previously had little contact, and made possible the mobility of ideas, people, goods across great distances.

               This is a designated Writing course.  E. Kane

HISTORY  448  HUMAN TRAFFICKING:  PROSTITUTION AND SEX-SLAVERY IN NORTHEAST ASIA, WESTERN EUROPE, AND THE U.S. SINCE 1850  An examination of recent public debates regarding human trafficking within an historical context.  The course explores socio-political relationships between sex trafficking, public health polities, and the projects of modern nation- and empire-building.  This analysis is limited to sexual exploitation and (usually non-voluntary) prostitution.  This is the same course as Gender and Women′s Studies 448.

               This is a designated Writing course.  A. M. Davis

HISTORY  449  J.R.R. TOLKIEN:  PHILOLOGIST, MEDIEVALIST, CATHOLIC HUMANIST  An examination of Tolkien′s professional life, personal experiences, and scholarly and popular writings.  Emphasis on how his service during World War I, profound spirituality, and love of and desire to (re)create language and myth shaped his literary production, from his critical essay on Beowulf to the Lord of the Rings.

               This is a designated Writing course.  Staff

HISTORY  450  LATIN AMERICAN IMMIGRATION  The movement of people within Latin America and of Latin Americans abroad.  Topics include Iberian colonization; the African Diaspora; Asian, German and Jewish immigrants; rural-to-urban migration; and Latin Americans in the United States and Connecticut, including migrant labor, bilingual education, gender roles, racism, and transnational identity.  This course may include an optional section that will meet for an additional hour each week to discuss supplemental readings in Spanish.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.  This is the same course as American Studies/Comparative Race and Ethnicity 450.  L. Garofalo

HISTORY  450f  LATIN AMERICAN IMMIGRATION  (In Spanish)  This optional section will meet for additional hour each week to discuss supplemental texts in Spanish.  Students participating in the foreign language section will receive one additional credit hour, pass/not passed marking.  Students electing Course 450f must concurrently register for Course 450.  This is the same course as Comparative Race and Ethnicity 450f.  L. Garofalo

HISTORY  454  THE REAGAN REVOLUTION:  AMERICAN CONSERVATISM, 1940-1990  To understand the rise of Ronald Reagan and his ongoing legacy -- indeed, to make sense of ongoing debates about the nature of conservatism -- this seminar explores broader historical questions about progressivism, conservatism, the welfare state, the cold war, popular culture, the media, and the presidency.  This is the same course as American Studies 454.

               This is a designated Writing course.  Staff

HISTORY  457  NINETEENTH-CENTURY AMERICA  A research seminar exploring the major turning points in the history of the United States during the 19th century, particularly the market revolution, slavery, women's suffrage, environmentalism, borderlands, and the rise of industrialization.  While the focus of the course will be on the continental United States, the final weeks will examine the U.S. presence in Southwestern borderlands and in Latin America.  This is the same course as American Studies 457.

               This is a designated Writing course.  J. Downs

HISTORY  458  SOUTH OF CANADA IS THE MASON-DIXON LINE:  THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT IN THE NORTH, 1925-1975  This course examines the civil rights struggle in the North and the Black Power Movement.  Students explore the role played by local black professionals and members of the working class, who participated in local movements and fought to eradicate de facto segregation in housing, education, employment, and public accommodations.  This is the same course as American Studies/Comparative Race and Ethnicity 458.  D. Canton

HISTORY  460  THE BLACK FREEDOM STRUGGLE 1946-1968  This seminar examines the history of the modern civil rights movement.  In addition to traditional leaders such as Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., this course explores the contributions of lesser-known figures such as Ella Baker, and the impact of local movements.  This course studies civil rights activity in northern cities, and examines the tensions of class, "black middle-class respectability," and gender in the black community. This is the same course as American Studies 460.  D. Canton

HISTORY  463  CITY UPON THE HILL:  SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEW ENGLAND AND AMERICAN IDENTITY  A study of early New England society.  Topics include Puritan religious practices, democracy and town meetings, the seafaring and merchant economy, family patterns and sexual mores, and modern legacies of this tradition.  This is the same course as American Studies 463.

          This is a designated Writing course.  L. Wilson

HISTORY  465  THE GLOBALIZATION OF AMERICAN CULTURE SINCE 1945  This is the same course as American Studies 465.  Refer to the American Studies listing for a course description.

HISTORY  467  THE HISTORY AND POLITICS OF RACISM AND PUBLIC HEALTH  The relationship between racism and public health and medicine from slavery through the 20th century.  Topics include racism and the construction of epidemics; the Tuskegee experiments; tuberculosis and urban life; gender, sexuality and AIDS; reproductive rights and poverty; and the origin of black people's systems of health care and support.  J. Downs

HISTORY  468  RACE AND SEX IN EARLY AMERICA  An exploration of questions of race, class, gender, and sexuality in Early America from the settlement of Jamestown in 1607 through the post-revolutionary period two hundred years later.  Students will examine the experience of historical subjects who existed on the margins of the social and political order such as Native Americans, African-American slaves, poor people, women of all races, and free African Americans.  This course will also examine the cultural production of images, language, and symbols that gave meaning to categories of identity and difference, particularly those of race and gender.  This is the same course as American Studies/Gender and Women′s Studies 468.

               This is a designated Writing course.  J. Manion

HISTORY  476  THE GLOBAL 1960s  A transnational study of the dramatic social, political, and cultural transformations that occurred during the 1960s, including decolonization, the African-American freedom struggle, the Vietnam War, the Cultural Revolution in China, the sexual revolution, and student protest movements that took place around the world.  This is the same course as American Studies 476.

               This is a designated Writing course.  Staff

HISTORY  491, 492  INDIVIDUAL STUDY

HISTORY  495  HONORS STUDY (see description under Course 497)

HISTORY  497-498  HONORS STUDY

HISTORY  497  HONORS STUDY  (SEMINAR)  A seminar in research techniques, historiography, and historical methodology.  Students who successfully complete the seminar may enroll the following semester in Course 498 and complete an honors thesis.  Students who successfully complete the seminar but who do not enroll in Course 498 will receive credit for Course 495.  Course 497 is required of all first-semester honors students in history.

               Permission of the instructor is required.  Enrollment limited to senior history majors.

HISTORY  498  HONORS STUDY

Course 497 is prerequisite to Course 498.